Which of the following are examples of Kelley's "star strategies"?

Show and tell

the pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectively by integrating the work of people through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organization's resources is called

management

a group of people who work together to achieve some specific purpose is/are called

an organization

to be _____ means to use resources wisely and cost-effectively

efficient

to be ____ means to make the right decisions and successfully carry them out to achieve goals

effective

the ___ effect states that your influence on the organization is multiplied far beyond the results that can be achieved by just one person acting alone

multiplier

according to a recent Fortune magazine article, the scarcest, most valuable resource in business is

skilled effective managers

which of the following is a payoff of studying management as a discipline?

you will understand how to manage yourself in the workplace

which of the following is a reward for practicing management?

A) You can build a catalog of successful products or services.
B) You and your employees can experience a sense of accomplishment.
C) You can stretch your abilities and magnify your range
D) You can be rewarded money and status for your efforts
E) All of the above are rewards of being a manager.
E

which of the following is a challenge facing managers?

managing to achieve the manager's own happiness and life goals

the ability of an organization to produce goods or services better than its competitors is called its

competitive advantage

the first law of business is

take care of the customer

an organization must stay ahead of their competitors in all of the following areas except

white-collar organization

finding ways to deliver goods or services as quickly as possible using as few resources as possible is called

efficiency

during the next half-century, the percentage of whites in the population is expected to ___, and the percentage of Hispanics is expected to ____.

decrease, increase

______ is the implementation of systems and practices to increase the sharing of knowledge and information throughout an organization

knowledge management

Amy is in charge of the company newsletter. She provides the newsletter by both e-mail and hard copy to each employee. In the newsletter she includes changes in company policy, awards employees have received, and general interest articles about the company staff. Amy is participating in

knowledge management

the companys culture most directly affects

a manager's happiness

which of the following is a function of management?

planning

what you as a manager do to "get things done" is called

the management process

setting goals and deciding how to achieve them is called

planning

arranging tasks, people, and other resources to accomplish the work is called

organizing

motivating and directing people to work hard to achieve the organization's goals is called

leading

monitoring performance and taking corrective action as needed is called

controlling

a manager at a pharmaceutical company is attempting to determine which type of people to hire. this is an example of

planning

an administrator at a college is deciding whether English professors should teach specialized courses or teach a variety of English courses. this is an example of

organizing

A team manager is inspiring her team to think of ideas that will put them first in sales among all departments in the retail store in which her team works. This is an example of

leading

A manager at a department store is trying to figure out why an employee recruitment effort is not performing as expected. This is an example of

controlling

in organizations, there are managers at ____ levels.

three

why did peter drucker compare knowledge workers to concert musicians?

he felt the workplace of the future may resemble a symphony orchestra with employees the musicians and managers a conductors

very large companies typically use which form of management structure?

traditional management pyramid

employees who have a great deal of technical skills are called

knowledge workers

Jay is a software engineer who works for Microsoft. He develops the software code that fixes bugs found in Microsoft products. Because of his great deal of technical skills, Jay is best referred to as a

knowledge worker

managers who are responsible for the people who directly make a product rather than managing others are called

first-line managers

Managers who make strategic and long-term decisions about the overall direction of the organization are most likely to be

top managers

GE CEO Jeffrey Immelt is a

top manager

Managers who implement the policies and plans of the organization and coordinate the activities of lower levels are called

middle managers

John is a plant manager for Proctor & Gamble who implements the policies of P & G in his plant. His plant makes diapers and other baby-related products. John is most likely a

middle manager

managers who make short-term operating decisions and direct the daily tasks of the organization are called

first line managers

a ___ manager is responsible for just one organizational activity

functional

__________ organizations are voluntary collections of members whose purpose is to advance members' interests.

mutual-benefit

A & H Farm Cooperative advances its members' interests by providing a place for the members to sell their produce. A & H is which type of organization?

mutual-benefit

the measure of success of a nonprofit organization is

the effectiveness of the services delivered

which of the following statements about a manager's life is true according to Henry Mintzberg

A) Managers work long hours.
B) Managers work at an intense pace.
C) Managers' work is characterized by fragmentation.
D) Managers rely more on verbal than on written communication.
E) All of the above statements are correct.
E

which of the following is an example of an interpersonal role?

figurehead

which of the following is an example of an informational role?

spokesperson

according to Mintzberg's work, which of the following is a type of role that managers play?

decisional

When managers interact with suppliers in solving quality problems, they are operating in the _______ role.

interpersonal

Pat, a manager, is showing potential customers around the company facility. Pat is performing the __________ role.

figurehead

Betty, a manager, is training new employees of the firm who will be working for her. Betty is performing the __________ role.

leadership

Chris, a manager, attends meetings of the local city government council to lobby for tax breaks for his company. Chris is performing the ________ role.

liaison

when managers collect data from other people, they are operating in the ____ role.

informational

Over breakfast, Jordan, a manager, scans the Wall Street Journal for information relevant to his company's industry. Jordan is performing the ________ role.

monitor

Riya, a manager, calls a meeting of her subordinates to tell them about the new benefits package. Riya is performing the ________ role.

disseminator

Raj is assigned to hold a press conference that discusses the company's plans to build a new plant. Raj is performing the _________ role.

spokesperson

A manager is using information to understand the cause of a problem and determine the best corrective action. This is an example of a(n):

decisional role

Bianca is establishing a suggestion system that rewards employees for their ideas to save the company money. She is acting in the __________ role.

entrepreneur

Allen is down on the factory floor helping to clear up a problem that occurred on the assembly line. He is acting in the ___ role.

disturbance handler

Marie is deciding how much budget each of the departments she managers will receive next year. She is operating in the ___________ role.

resource allocator

Melvin, leader of a task force, is in the Marketing Department manager's office attempting to convince him to allow a particular member of the department to work on the task force. Melvin is operating in the _______________ role.

negotiator

_______ means taking risks to create a new enterprise.

Entrepreneurship

the belief that you control your own destiny is called

internal locus of control

all of the following are characteristics of an entrepreneur EXCEPT

A) high need for achievement
B) ability to maintain a business
C) belief in personal control of destiny
D) high energy level and action oriented
E) self confidence
B

an entrepreneur who starts their own business out of a burning desire rather than because they lost a job is called a/an___.

opportunity entrepreneur

according to Katz, which of the following principal skils is one that managers need?

human

__________ skills consist of the job-specific knowledge needed to perform well in a specialized field.

technical

Jo, a managing partner of an accounting firm, understands tax law. This means she has a ______________ skill.

technical

the ability to think analytically is associated with ___ skills

conceptual

Robert has a picture in his mind of the whole process by which his company produces applesauce. This is an example of a ______________ skill.

conceptual

conceptual skills are particularly important for ___ managers

top

______ skills consist of the ability to work well in cooperation with other people to get things done

human

José, a manager, has an open door policy and encourages his staff to drop in whenever they have a question. José is exercising ______ skills.

human

human skills are particularly important for ____ managers

all types of

which of the following is a chief skill companies seek in top managers?

A) the ability to motivate and engage others
B) the ability to communicate
C) work experience outside the U.S.
D) high energy levels to meet the demands of global travel and a 24/7 world
E) All of the above are chief skills companies seek in top managers.
E

the scientific method consists of

observation, theorizing, predicting, and testing

which of the following is a good reason for studying theoretical perspectives?

provides clues to the meaning of outside events

the classical viewpoint is part of the ___ perspective

historical

the contemporary perspective includes which of the following perspectives?

contingency

the viewpoint that emphasizes ways to manage work more efficiently is the ___ approach

classical

__________ was concerned with managing the total organization and was studied by Fayol and Weber.

administrative management

Fredrick Winslow Taylor and the Gilbreths were proponents of which of the following?

scientific management

On of the 17 basic motions identified by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth is called

therblig

the core emphasis of classical management theories is on the belief that

work can be managed efficiently

Frederick W. Taylor is important to management history because he

pioneered motion studies

which of these viewpoints emphasized ways to manage work more efficiently?

classical viewpoint

Which of these viewpoints emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and motivating and encouraging employees toward achievement?

behavioral viewpoint

_____ focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more efficiently

operations management

__________ emphasizes the scientific study of work methods to improve productivity of individual workers.

scientific management

Which of these viewpoints focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making?

management science

taylor called the tendency for people to deliberately work at less than full capacity

soldiering

the approach that is concerned with managing the total organization is called

administrative management

of the following, which is one of the functions of management described by fayol?

coordinating

which of the following was a positive feature of bureaucracy, according to max weber?

impersonality

Which of the following most closely represents the management viewpoint that McDonald's follows in its stores?

classical viewpoint

the most important problem with the classical approach is that it

views humans as cogs in a machine

which of the following is one of the phases in the development of the behavioral viewpoint?

human relations

The person who is called "the father of industrial psychology" was

Hugo Munsterberg

The idea that organizations should be managed as communities with managers and subordinates working together in harmony was developed by

Mary Parker Follet

among the recommendations of mary parker follet was

integration should occur in organizations when conflicts arose

the idea that management should pay more attention to employees came out of

the Hawthorne studies

the theory of hierarchy of human needs was developed by

Maslow

When Carlos noticed that he was hungry, he stopped working, got up, fixed himself a sandwich, and ate it in the company of his wife, who happened to be in the kitchen at the time. According to Maslow, the motivation for Carlos's behavior arose from which one of the following needs?

physiological

the idea that workers are capable of accepting responsibility and working in a self-directed manner is representative of

Theory Y

The idea that if a manager expects a subordinate to act in a certain way, the worker may, in fact, very well act that way, thereby confirming the manager's expectations, is called

self-fulfilling prophecy

behavioral science relies on ___ for developing theories about human behavior that can help managers

scientific research

which of the following is a discipline that is part of behavioral science?

psychology

__________ is a category of historical management perspectives requiring the application to management of techniques such as statistics and computer simulations.

the quantitative viewpoint

_____ focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making

management science

operations research techniques have evolved into

quantitative methods

To decide how many package sorters to schedule and at which times UPS and FedEx probably use the tools of

management science

________ focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more effectively.

operations management

Raj is the nurse in charge of managing the supplies and other inventory for his wing of the hospital. He uses a(n) _________ program to be sure that the hospital can rely on always having the correct supplies and level of inventory on hand. This allows the hospital to be both efficient and effective.

operations management

The __________ viewpoint sees organizations as entities with inputs, outputs, transformation processes, and feedback.

systems

The ________ viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's actions should vary according to the situation.

contingency

__________ focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for "zero defects".

quality assurance

Which viewpoint focuses on minimizing errors and defects by managing each state of production?

quality management

A(n) ____ is a set of interrelated parts operating together to achieve a common purpose

system

A(n) ____ continually interacts with its environment

open system

A(n) ______________ has little interaction with its environment.

closed system

The Colgate toothpaste that Colgate-Palmolive manufactures is an example of a(n) __________ of its manufacturing system.

output

The plant manager who oversees the manufacture of Cheerios cereal is part of the __________ of the manufacturing system.

transformation processes

"mindlessness" is characterized by which of the following attributes?

automatic behavior

which of the following approaches is the best example of a manager using the contingency viewpoint?

assessing the particular situation and deciding what to do

the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production is called

quality control

__________ focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for "zero defects".

quality assurance

Deming believed that quality stems from

steady focus on the organization's mission

Deming proposed that when something goes wrong, chances are __________ that the system is at fault, and __________ that the individual worker is at fault.

85%, 15%

The comprehensive approach to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction is known as

total quality management

TQM is led by

top managers

Organizations that actively create, acquire, and transfer knowledge within themselves and are able to modify their behavior to reflect this new knowledge are called

learning

the term "learning organization" was coined by

Senge

Alvin, a manager for ABC, Inc., subscribes to a large number of business and trade journals. He shares information he thinks is relevant with others at ABC. Alvin is behaving as if he is in a __________ organization

learning

Marilyn works for a small, private, mid-western university as a budget manager. She has just been to a leadership conference where she learned new tools that she thinks will benefit her staff. On the plane home Marilyn began planning how she would encourage employees to use this new knowledge to modify their behavior to help her department reach its goals. Based on this information, which of the following is the best description of the type of organization for which Marilyn works?

a learning organization

Scott works for an organization that describes itself as a "learning organization." As a manager, which of the following actions is Scott most likely to take while working for this organization?

When Scott needs a new member of his staff, he deliberately looks for someone with new talent and expertise.

Which of these is defined as an organization whose members are geographically apart, usually working with e-mails, collaborative computing, and other computer connections?

virtual organization

A __________ is defined as a fluid, highly adaptive organization whose members, linked by information technology, come together to collaborate on common tasks.

boundaryless organization

A(n) ___ worker is someone whose occupation is principally concerned with generating or interpreting information

knowledge

____ capital is the economic or productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships

social

____ is the economic or productive potential of employee knowledge, experience, and actions

human capital

To create a learning organization, managers must perform three key functions or roles: build a commitment to learning, work to generate ideas with impact, and

work to generalize ideas with impact

Maria recently read a trade article about creating a learning organization. She thought it was exactly the type of organization she wanted to lead. As CEO of ABC Company she then held a meeting with her direct reports and most likely asked them to do which one of the following things that would best help her in creating the learning organization she aspired to lead?

create a psychologically safe environment

Wal-Mart's low wage policy has forced safeway to do which of the following?

reduce benefits for their workers

employees are part of the ___ environment of organizations

internal

governments are part of the ____ environment of organizations

task

demographic forces are part of the ____ environment of organizations

general

United airlines is 55% employee owned through a mechanism called

employee stock ownership

The group responsible for setting the organization's overall strategic goals and for approving decisions and salaries of top management is known as the

board of directors

which of the following is an example of an internal stakeholder of an organization?

individual workers

people who can claim an organization as their legal property are called

owners

which of the following is an example of an external stakeholder of an organization?

customers who go to starbucks for a latte

which of the following is an example of a group in an organization's task environment?

mass media

A(n) __________ is a person or organization that helps another organization sell its goods and services to customers.

distributor

A(n) __________ is a person or organization that provides raw materials, services, equipment, labor, or energy to other organizations.

supplier

Two drug companies agree to work together to pool their research and development funds to develop a new drug for arthritis. In doing so, these two organizations can best be described as

strategic allies

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers environmental standards in the U.S. The EPA represents __________, part of an organizations' __________.

government regulators; task environment

ChemTech International is being picketed by a group of people who live by its biggest plant. The group is concerned about ChemTech's disposal of waste products into nearby waterways. In this instance, ChemTech is most likely dealing with __________ part of its __________ environment.

local communities; task

A human rights organization is urging consumers to boycott products made by Outbound Clothing because Outbound exploits labor in less developed countries where its manufacturing facilities are located. Outbound is dealing with __________, part of its __________ environment.

special-interest groups; task

which of the following statements about the mass media is true?

no manager can afford to ignore the power of the mass media

the general environment of an organization is also known as its

macroenvironment

unemployment rates are examples of ______ forces in an organization's general environment

economic

In the insurance industry, claims files previously maintained as paper documents are now stored on computers. This is an example of __________ forces in an organization's _________ environment.

technological; general

which of the following is considered a demographic characteristic

gender

Which of these is a situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of action that may benefit you or your organization but that is unethical or even illegal?

ethical dilemma

whistleblowers are most likely presented with which of the following?

an ethical dilemma

standards of right and wrong that influence behavior are known as

ethics

the pattern of values within an organization is known as its

value system

__________ are the relatively permanent and deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help determine a person's behavior.

values

A manager, attempting to decide what decision will result in the individual's best long-term interests, is engaged in the __________ approach to deciding an ethical dilemma.

individual

Pat, a manager at State University, is deciding how to set up a procedure for registering on-line that gives students fair access to courses. Pat is engaged in the ________ approach.

justice

Issues of equity and fairness are usually tied to which of the following approaches to deciding ethical dilemmas?

justice

Drug companies are often criticized for selling their drugs at exorbitant prices. When asked, they will often say that the pricing is fair given the amount of research and development that has gone into the drug. Without this high price, they argue that other new drugs that will help millions of people around the world could not be developed. Yet, those who cannot afford the high price and may die without the drug feel unjustly discriminated against. The drug companies are practicing which approach to this ethical dilemma?

utilitarian

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that a company's chief executive officer and chief financial officer must comply with which of the following?

must certify financial reports

New MBAs sometimes expect the employees they supervise to be obedient for obedience's sake. The level of personal moral development for which this statement is an example is the __________ level according to Kohlberg.

preconventional

which of the following statements about a code of ethics is most true?

most codes of ethics offer guidance on how to treat stakeholders

Thomas, an assembly line worker for SoftTools Company, observes that his graveyard shift (midnight - 8 a.m.) manager removes safety guards from some machines so that the work can be done faster. Thomas sends a letter to top management reporting this. Thomas is a:

whistleblower

a manager's duty to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization is known as

social responsibility

__________ is the notion that corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit.

corporate social responsibility

Milton Firedman would have agreed with which of the following statements about social responsibility?

a company will not benefit the stockholders when it practices social responsibility

The economic development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is known as

sustainability

Google made a pledge to investors when it went public to reserve 1% of its profit and equity to "make the world a better place." This action is the best example of corporate

Philanthropy

Sergio is Manager of Human Resources for XYZ Company. News has just been released that the company has violated financial reporting laws. Based on research on the effects of such publicity, Sergio should expect that

job applications will decrease

which of the following is one of the layers of the "diversity wheel"?

external dimensions

which of the following would be considered a primary dimension of diversity?

gender

______ is defined as the stable physical and mental characteristics responsible for a person's identity

personality

which of the following dimensions is an example of a secondary dimension on the diversity wheel?

geographic location

which of the following dimensions is an example of an organizational dimension on the diversity wheel?

seniority

the concept of the glass ceiling would most likely be experienced by which of the following people?

an african american woman who is a senior vice president at a large multinational bank

the americans with disabilities act requires employers to

reasonably accommodate an individual's disability

the belief that one's own culture is better than another culture is called

ethnocentrism

Joe believes that he was not promoted to professor at State University because of the university's desire to promote minorities and women to achieve greater diversity at higher ranks. More than likely Joe believes he is suffering from

reverse discrimination

which of the following is a way to become a world citizen?

learn rituals of respect

the trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system is called

globalization

Which of the following refers to the "shrinking" of time and space as air travel and the electronic media have made it easier for people of the globe to communicate with one another?

global village

the beginning of the global economy can be traced to

the fall of the berlin wall

The term "global economy" refers to the ___________ tendency of the economies of the world to interact with one another as ______ market instead of ______ national markets.

increasing; one; many

which of the following is an effect of global economic interdependency?

A) increased economic activity
B) the easy flow of money throughout the world
C) outsourcing
D) the tremendous emphasis on speed, flexibility, versatility, and permanent change.
E) All of the above are effects of global economic interdependency.
E

which of these is also referred to as a "corporation on steroids"?

megamerger

based on technology philosopher Negroponte's reasoning, we are likely to see

more small, fast-moving startup companies and more megamergers

which of the following is an advantage of small companies

small companies can change directions quickly

a business firm with operations in several countries is called a

multinational corporation

a nonprofit organization with operations in several countries is called a

multinational organization

the Church of Latter Day Saints is an example of a

multinational organization

__________ managers accept that there are differences and similarities between home and foreign personnel and practices and that they should use whatever techniques are most effective.

Geocentric

Alvin is a manager who accepts that differences and similarities exist between home and foreign personnel and practices, and that the company should use whatever techniques are most effective. Alvin can be described as a(n) __________ manager.

geocentric

a "polycentric" manager believes that

native managers in foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices

Wayne, the American head of a mid-sized multinational corporation has sent his best U.S. managers to an African subsidiary because he wants to be sure that the "job gets done right" to use his words. Wayne is most likely a(n) __________ manager.

ethnocentric

ethnocentrism is most likely linked to

high turnover among employees in foreign subsidiaries

which of these might also be called parochialism?

ethnocentrism

which of the following is a reason why companies expand internationally?

greater access to capital

XYZ, an American corporation, builds a manufacturing plant in Mexico, employs Mexican citizens and receives favorable tax treatment by the Mexican government. XYZ is

using maquiladora

when a company uses a supplier outside itself to provide goods and services, it is

outsourcing

a company that is buying goods outside the country and reselling them domestically is involved in

importing

a company that is producing goods domestically and sells them outside the country is involved in

exporting

a company that barters goods for other goods is involved in

counter-trading

ABC, an American company, produces paper products. It arranges a trade with a Russian firm for metal fasteners that the Russian firm produces. ABC then resells the metal fasteners. ABC is involved in

counter-trading

DuPont Corporation allows a firm in Brazil to make a Teflon. This is an example of

licensing

A company allows a foreign firm to pay it a fee and a share of the profits for using the first company's brand name and a package of materials and services. This is called

franchising

Namibia has a law that prohibits foreign companies from ownership of firms within the country. In order to have a presence in that country a company may engage in a ___________ with an existing company in Namibia.

strategic allience

A U.S. company agrees with a foreign company to start a new enterprise together in a foreign country, sharing the risks and the rewards. This is called a

joint venture

ABC Company operated as a Polish independent business in Poland until it was purchased by the American XYZ Corporation. ABC is now a __________ of XYZ Corporation.

wholly owned subsidiary

Nike agrees with a Pakistani company that the Pakistani company can manufacture Nike running shoes and pay Nike a fee to distribute them in Pakistan. Nike has engaged in

licensing

Burger King provides the use of its name plus operating know-how to companies in Canada in return for a fee plus a percentage of profits. Burger King is

franchising

the movement of goods and services among nations without political or economic obstruction is called

free trade

the use of government regulations to limit the import of goods and services is called

trade protectionism

which of the following is a form of trade protectionism?

protective tariff

Japan has increased the price of rice imported from the United States through a tax on American rice. This is a form of

tariff

A number of years ago, the U.S. charged a duty of 18% - 67% on imported Japanese steel. This is an example of a(n)

protective tariff

__________ is the practice of a foreign company's exporting products abroad at a lower price than the price in the home market—or even below the costs of production—in order to drive down the price of the domestic product.

Dumping

a limit on the numbers of a product that can be imported is called a

quota

The United States implemented a complete ban on the importation of beef raised in Great Britain. This is an example of a(n)

embargo

the U.S. does not allow the import of Cuban sugar and cigars. This is an example of an

embargo

A number of years ago, the U.S. limited the amount of steel that was imported. This is an example of a(n)

import quota

quotas are designed to prevent

dumping

The practice of a foreign company's exporting products abroad at a lower price than the costs of production, in order to drive down the price of the domestic product, is called

dumping

The principal organization that provides low-interest loans to developing nations for improving their infrastructures is called the

world bank

the ______ is designed to monitor and enforce trade agreements

WTO

the principal organization that was designed to assist in smoothing the flow of money between nations is called the

IMF

When Thailand's currency dropped precipitously in value in the 1990s, the __________ helped by loaning money to various Asian countries.

IMF

The __________ is the rate at which one country's currency can be exchanged for another country's currency.

exchange rate

which of the following is a major trading bloc?

APEC

the economic community that includes Italy and Holland is the

EU

which of the following countries is a member of Mercosur?

Brazil

which of the following countries is a member of APEC

China

__________ is a trading status describes a condition in which a country grants other countries favorable trading treatment such as a reduction of import duties.

most favored nation

Managers trying to understand other cultures need to understand basic cultural perceptions embodied in which of the following?

religion

A nation's __________ is the shard set of beliefs, values, knowledge, and patterns of behavior common to a group of people.

culture

A(n) __________ is when people rely heavily on situational cues for meaning when communicating with others.

high-context culture

which of the following is a cultural dimension of Hofstede's model?

power distance

the degree to which people accept inequality in social situations is known as

power distance

__________ is when people feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and support beliefs that promise certainty and conformity.

high uncertainty avoidance

which of the following is a cultural dimension in the GLOBE project?

institutional collectivism

People of different cultures have different ideas of what is an acceptable distance between people when having a business discussion. This nonverbal element is called

interpersonal space

______ is a preference for doing one thing at a time

monochronic

which of the following statements about polychronic time is true?

A) Most people in Latin America have a polychromic view of time.
B) Multitasking is present in this view of time.
C) People who view time through a polychronic lens have a preference for doing more than one thing at a time.
D) Arab cultures have a polychronic view of time.
E) All of the above statements are true.
E

the religion with the most followers worldwide is

Christianity

planning is defined as

setting goals and deciding how to achieve them

planning is the ____ step in the management process, and involves setting goals and deciding how to achieve them

first

which of the following is a step in the planning and strategic management process?

formulate the grand strategy

which of the following is a benefit of planning?

planning helps you cope with uncertainty

A company that focuses on developing new products or services and in seeking out new markets, rather than waiting for things to happen, is known as a

prospector

Which of the following is one of the organizational responses to uncertainty identified by Miles and Snow?

prospector

XYZ Company scans its environment regularly. However, it does not tend to seek opportunities outside its present markets. This company would most likely be a (n)

defender

A company that believes in letting other organizations take the risks of product development and marketing and then imitate what seems to work best is called a (n)

analyzer

which of the following statements about the adaptive cycle is true?

A) Miles and Snow introduced this idea.
B) The adaptive cycle means that businesses are continuously cycling through decisions about three kinds of business problems.
C) Selecting and making adjustments of products and markets is one of the business problems that is part of the adaptive cycle.
D) Establishing roles, relationships, and organizational processes are part of the adaptive cycle.
E) All of the above statements are true of the adaptive cycle.
E

which of the following is in the correct order?

mission statement & vision statement, strategic planning, tactical planning, operational planning

which level of management is more often engaged in operational planning?

first-line managers

what is the time frame of a strategic plan?

1-5 years

the statement of an organization's purpose or reason for being is called its

mission statement

a "vision statement" is a statement of

what the organization wants to become

When an organization plans effectively, it plans in three phases. Starting with the one that should come first, what is the correct order of these phases?

strategic, tactical, operational

The _________ identifies the goods or services the organization provides and will provide, and the reasons for providing them.

mission statement

Roger Enrico of PepsiCo, had a clear sense of the future and the actions needed to get there. This is an example of a(n)

vision

Bartolome is participating with other managers in a discussion about what his organization's goals should be for the next five years. He is participating in

strategic planning

Imelda is meeting with other managers to discuss how the departments within her division can work together in the next twenty-four months to support the organization's goals. She is participating in

tactical planning

Ivan is meeting with his subordinates to work out the numbers of positions for workers needed to handle production for the next 6 months. Ivan is involved in

operational planning

which of the following would be associated with operational planning?

directing daily tasks of non-managerial personnel

Harley Davidson Motorcycles states that it will improve its profit margin by 15% by ensuring continued high sales of its products for the next three years. This is a statement of Harley Davidson's

strategic goal

a _______ outlines the general responses to a designated problem or situation

policy

a _______ designates specific required action

rule

a ______ outlines the responses to particular problems or circumstances

procedure

the space shuttle discovery is an example of a

project

a single-use plan of less scope and complexity than a program is a

project

MBO stands for

management by objectives

MBO was developed by Peter Drucker in the

1950s

the first step in the MBO process is

jointly set objectives

in practicing MBO, a manager should

set objective jointly with employees

after setting goals, managers should next

prepare an action plan for accomplishing the goals

MBO works by "cascading" objectives; that is, they become more __________ at lower levels of the organization.

specific

which of the following would BEST describe MBO?

its purpose is to motivate employees

a "SMART" goal is one that is

specific, measurable, attainable, results-oriented, and has targeted dates.

In MBO, the structure of the objectives—organizational, divisional, departmental, and individual—is called the ________ of objectives.

cascading

which of the following is the best statement of a goal?

i want to lose 20 pounds by June 1, 2010

the constant feedback loop designed to ensure plans stay headed in the right direction is called the

planning/ control cycle

improving future plans is part of which step in the planning/ control cycle?

controlling the direction

project planning is most often followed by

project management

A project team whose members are separated from the normal operation of an organization and asked to produce a new, innovative product is called a

skunkworks

the four stages of a project are, in order:

definition, planning, execution, closing

Anthony's main focus is to complete his project on time. This project is in the ____________ stage.

execution

Juanita is identifying the facilities and equipment that will be needed in a project. This project is in the _________ stage.

planning

Muhammad is conducting training of the end-users of a new computer system that is being installed. This project is in the ____________ stage.

closing

Barbara is identifying the facilities and equipment needed to make the "big picture" happen. This project is in the ___________ stage.

planning

when a student is identifying a topic for a research paper, she is in the ____ stage of a project

definition

Joyce is in the library checking to see how much material is available on a topic she has tentatively chosen for a research paper. Joyce is in the ___________ stage of her project.

planning

which of the following is a stage of the project life cycle?

definition

a large-scale action plan that sets the direction for an organization is called a

strategy

Wal-Mart is guided by the following credo: "Find out what customers want, then provide it to them as cheaply and quickly as possible." This is Wal-Mart's

strategy

effective strategic management involves

managers from all parts of the organization

Which of the following would be considered a reason for adopting strategic management and strategic planning?

to encourage new ideas

Which of the following statements about strategic planning and strategic management is true?

strategic management is a process that involves managers from all parts of the organization

bad planning usually is a result of which of the following?

A) information overload
B) ineffective group dynamics
C) poor assessment of an organization's capabilities
D) faulty assumptions about the future
E) Bad planning usually results from all of the above.
E

which of the following is a cause of bad planning?

faulty assumptions about the future

which of the following is an area a company needs to get in and stay ahead in order to sustain a competitive advantage?

A) quality
B) effectiveness
C) being responsive to customers
D) innovating
E) All of the above are areas in which a company needs to get and stay ahead.
E

__________ attempts to achieve sustainable competitive advantage by preserving what is distinctive about a company.

strategic positioning

which of the following statements about strategy and strategic positioning is true?

A) Strategic position emerges from three sources.
B) Strategy requires trade-offs in competing.
C) A company has to choose not only what strategy to follow but what strategy not to follow.
D) Strategy involves creating a "fit" among activities.
E) All of the above statements about strategy and strategic positioning are true.
E

research on strategic planning positively affected firm performance in

firms of all sizes

according to the text, a small firm is likely to benefit significantly from strategic planning

when it is in a very competitive industry

Zach manages a small video rental store. In order to determine if strategic planning will be likely to help his business, Zach should primarily assess

how many competitors he has

the most important thing a good mission statement should express is the

firm's purpose

how many steps are in the strategic-management process?

5

which of the following is the second stage in the strategic-management process?

establish the grand strategy

which of the following is the final step of the strategic management process?

maintain strategic control

which of the following is a question that should be answered by a company's mission statement?

what is our basic technology?

Which of the following is a question that should be answered by a company's vision statement?

is it ambitious?

the "grand strategies" are

growth, stability, defensive

techno tools is selling off land, buildings and some of its product inventory. It is pursuing which of these strategies?

defensive

ABC Company has developed new products to appeal to more potential buyers. ABC is pursuing a ___________ strategy.

growth

Rocky Mountain Ski and Snowboard is a small shop that provides ski equipment for Rocky Mountain skiers. It has decided to increase advertising in the Denver Post and the Vail Voice as well as sponsor one of the mountain competitions. It is following which strategy?

growth

a strategy that involves little or no significant change is the ______ strategy.

stability

A company declares bankruptcy. Which of the following strategies has the company followed?

defensive

ABC Company phased out its line of typewriters last year. ABC is engaged in a _________ strategy.

defensive

XYZ has acquired a new company with a similar business service. XYZ is engaged in a ____________ strategy.

growth

the process of putting the company's strategic plans in place is called

stratefy implementation

__________ is the process of choosing among different strategies and altering them to best fit the organization's needs.

strategy formulation

___ consists of monitoring the execution of strategy and making adjustments, if necessary

strategic control

which of the following is a suggestion by Bryan Barry to keep a strategic plan on track?

A) Engage people
B) Stay focused
C) Keep moving
D) Keep it simple
E) All of the above are Barry's suggestions to keep a strategic plan on track.
E

Which of the following points will most likely streamline an effective meeting?

Marjorie does her homework in advance of the meeting and prepares an agenda with the most important items discussed first.

managers need to do a ____ as a starting point in developing a grand strategy

SWOT analysis

SWOT analysis is also known as

situational analysis

When analyzing the "S" in a SWOT analysis, a manager might be assessing

good financial resources of the firm

When analyzing the "W" in SWOT analysis, a manager might be assessing

high turnover of employees

When analyzing the "O" in SWOT analysis, a manager might be assessing

competitors' actions

When analyzing the "T" in SWOT analysis, a manager might be assessing

competitors actions

Analysis of the local and regional labor force would be part of the assessment of a company's

opportunities or threats depending on the outcome of the analysis

a manager assessing the skills and capabilities of the organization is involved in analysis of

strengths and weaknesses depending on the outcome of the assessment

Karen has just completed an assessment that indicates that her employees lack technological expertise to produce a new product line. She has discovered one of her firm's

weaknesses

Martina has prepared a report that details how her organization's customer service function fails to handle customer complaints effectively. Her report would be an input into the __________ part of a SWOT analysis.

weaknesses

Environmental factors that hinder an organization's achieving a competitive advantage are known as

organizational threats

a vision or projection of the future is called a

forecast

the creation of alternative hypothetical but equally likely future conditions is called

contingency planning

Which of the following is one of the forces that affects industry competition, according to Porter?

A) bargaining power of buyers
B) bargaining power of suppliers
C) threats of new entrants
D) substitute products and services
E) All of the above are forces that affect industry competition according to Porter.
E

Generic strategies include

cost leadership, differentiation, cost focus, focused differentiation

The company's CEO puts pressure on the firm's R&D managers to develop products that can be created cheaply for the world's consumers. The firm would be following a

cost leadership

An organization that is offering unique, superior products or services to a wide market is pursuing a strategy of

differentiation

an example of a firm pursuing a cost-leadership strategy is

Home Depot

an example of a firm that pursues a differentiation strategy

Ritz-carlton hotels

Timex Watch makes inexpensive but reliable watches sold throughout the U.S. and is an example of an organization pursuing a _________ strategy.

cost leadership

An organization that keeps costs and prices low in targeting a narrow market is pursuing a strategy of

cost focus

An organization that offers unique, superior products or services to a narrow market is pursuing a strategy of

focus differentiation

an example of a firm that pursues a cost-focus strategy is

regional gas stations

an example of a firm that pursues a focused-differentiation strategy is

rolls royce

the stages of the product life cycle, in order, are

introduction, growth, maturity, decline

in the growth stage of the product life cycle, most products are most likely

making the most profits

The stage of the product life cycle during which competitors enter the market is the _____________ stage.

growth

During the growth stage of the product life cycle, managers would advance their attack by

continuing with the strategy used in the introduction stage

during the maturity stage of the product life cycle, managers should expect that

sales will start to decline

during the introduction stage, managers should

invest in inventory and staff

XYZ carefully tracks the sale of its new Model III widget. Many competitors have recently entered this highly competitive market. Over the past 3 months, sales have started to decline. The product is probably in the __________ stage of the product life cycle.

maturity

Time Warner runs different divisions specializing in television, music, and publishing. Time Warner is using a(n) __________ strategy.

diversification

the benefit of a single-product company is

focus

__________ means the economic value of separate, related businesses under one ownership and management is greater together than the businesses are worth separately.

synergy

keeping track of what competitors are doing is called

competitive intelligence

Which of the following is a legal way to gain information about competitors so that the company can anticipate competitive moves and react appropriately?

use investor information

__________ consists of linking the three core processes of any business together to get things done on time according to Bossidy and Charan.

execution

the most important concern of global CEO is

excellence in execution

which of the following is a question a strong strategic plan must address?

can the business execute the strategy?

which of the following is a behavior of a leader who executes?

A) know your people and your business
B) insist on realism
C) follow through
D) know yourself
E) All of the above are behaviors of a leader who executes.
E

Which of the following statements about biased decision making is true?

When confronted with a choice, decision makers with strong prior beliefs tend to make their decision based on their beliefs even if their beliefs are false.

the extent to which a person has a high need for structure or control in her life is called

tolerance for ambiguity

a person with high tolerance for ambiguity has

comfort with chaotic situations

a "directive" decision-making style reflects a person who is ____ in his value orientation and _____ in his tolerance for ambiguity

task/technical; low

A person with a conceptual decision-making style is __________ in her value orientation and __________ in her tolerance for ambiguity.

people/social; high

A person who is oriented toward people and social concerns and has a low tolerance for ambiguity is __________ in her decision-making style.

behavioral

A person who is oriented toward task and technical concerns and has a low tolerance for ambiguity is __________ in his decision-making style.

directive

Bill is supportive of his employees and prefers to have verbal conversations rather than written memos. His style is most likely

behavioral

Imelda is a careful decision maker who has a reputation for taking a long time to make decisions. She is very thorough in collecting information and evaluating more alternatives than other managers are. Imelda is most likely ___________ in her decision-making style.

analytical

Ian is very creative and prefers to look at the long-term issues when making a decision. He considers a wide variety of possible actions based on an open mind about the possibilities. Sometimes his coworkers find him indecisive because of these tendencies. Ian is probably _________ in his decision-making style.

conceptual

Aleha is very social and likes being around others. She is very supportive of her subordinates and receptive to their ideas. She is constantly out of her office interacting with other people. Everyone knows that she can always be counted on to pitch in when help is asked. Aleha is most likely __________ in her decision-making style.

behavioral

which of the following is a step in the rational decision-making model?

identify the problem or opportunity

which of the following is a rational model of decision-making?

classical

business decision making may be ______, but often it is _______.

rational; non-rational

In which stage in the rational decision-making model do you evaluate the chosen solution's ability to take advantage of an opportunity?

this is not part of the rational decision-making model

Determining what is actually happening versus what is desirable is associated with which stage of the rational decision-making model?

stage 1

A diagnosis is used during __________ of the rational decision-making model in order to analyze underlying causes.

stage 1

in which stage in the rational decision making model are alternative solutions thought up?

stage 2

in which stage in the rational decision-making model do you implement and evaluate the solution chosen?

stage 4

which of the following is a possibility in an attempt to correct an action that is not working?

start over

the concept of "bounded rationality" is related to the ____ model of decision making

satisfying

The concept that suggests that the ability of decision makers to be rational is limited by numerous constraints is called

bounded rationality

managers who seek alternatives until they find one that is satisfactory but not optimal, are engaged in

satisficing

The model that suggests that managers take small, short-term steps to alleviate a problem is the ___________ model.

incremental

which of the following is a hindrance to perfectly rational decision making?

A) nformation overload
B) different priorities
C) conflicting goals
D) imperfect information
E) All of the above hinder perfectly rational decision making.
E

the incremental model of decision-making suggests that managers make decisions by

taking small steps to alleviate a problem

evidence-based decision making depends on

an attitude of wisdom

which of the following is an implementation principle described by Pfeffer and Sutton?

no brag, just facts

which of the following is a reason why it is hard to bring the best evidence to bear on your decisions?

A) The side effects outweigh the cure.
B) There's too much evidence.
C) Stories are more persuasive.
D) You are trying to mislead you.
E) All of the above are reasons why it is hard to bring the best evidence to bear on decisions.
E

which of the following is an attribute that occurs among analytics competitors?

going beyond simple descriptive statistics

a graph of decisions and their possible consequences is known as a

decision tree

Someone trained about matters of ethics in the workplace, particularly about resolving ethical dilemmas is known as a(n)

ethics officer

according to Constance Bagley, ethical decisions can be facilitated with the use of a(n)

decision tree

which of the following questions is part of the ethical decision tree?

would it be ethical not to take the action?

The general moral principles for managers ("the magnificent seven") helps to ensure that managers' decisions are

principled, appropriate, defensible

which of the following is one of the "magnificent seven" general moral principles for managers?

loyalty

which of the following moral principles for managers deals with promises, contracts, and commitments?

loyalty

which of the following is an advantage of group decision making?

greater commitment to the decision

Which of the following is a disadvantage of group decision making?

satificing

the tendency of group members to agree for the sake of unanimity is called

groupthink

the tendency of a group to settle on a decision that is "good enough" is called

satificing

when the primary goal of a group is subsumed by a secondary goal, _____ has occurred

goal displacement

Which of the following characteristics of group members may lead to "groupthink?"

they may be too confident

Boris has assembled a task force that is composed of people who don't know each other well. He should expect this group to make better decisions when

the members have common knowledge

the ____ a group is the ___ the quality of the decision

smaller; higher

which of the following statements about group decision making is true?

managers should utilize groups in decision making on a selective basis

Which of the following is a practical guideline in determining whether to use group decision-making?

when it can increase development

which of the following is part of PM ( participative management)?

A) process of involving employees
B) setting goals
C) making decisions
D) solving problems
E) All of the above choices are part of PM.
E

which of the following factors is one that a manager should consider in deciding whether to use a group?

increasing acceptance of the decision

The process of involving employees in setting goals, making decisions, solving problems, and making changes is called

participative management

Research on the effects of participative management (PM) on employees' performance and satisfaction indicates that

PM has a small positive effect on both

Which of the following is a factor that can help make participative management work?

employees trust managers

Factors that can help make participative management (PM) work include which of the following?

A) top management is continually involved
B) employees are properly trained
C) employees don't work in interdependent jobs
D) PM is implemented with TQM
E) All of the above choices are factors that can help make participative management work.
E

__________ is a technique used to help groups generate multiple ideas and alternatives for solving problems.

brainstorming

__________ is a method for increasing creativity in which members of a group come together over a computer network to generate ideas and alternatives.

brainwriting

A manager decides to take no action in the belief that there will be no great negative consequences. She is engaged in

relaxed avoidance

Zoe must decide whether to sign an extension to her lease for her small coffee shop, but she decides to take no action because she believes there will be no great negative consequences. Zoe is practicing

relaxed avoidance

passing the buck or procrastinating about a decision are examples of

defensive avoidance

Martina is so sick of dealing with Max, a problem subordinate! She can't sleep well, her stomach is bothering her, and she snaps at her husband. Martina is most likely experiencing a ___________ reaction.

panic

Ling Lee procrastinates making a decision about the morale problem among assembly workers. After all, she thinks, maybe someone else will figure out what to do. Ling Lee is experiencing a ________ reaction.

defensive avoidance

strategies that simplify the process of decision making for managers are called

heuristics

managers tend to give more weight to more recent behavior. This is largely due to the

availability bias

Sue hired a successful employee from ABC University. She is convinced that hiring from ABC University in the future will produce the same level of success. This is an example of a (n)

representativeness bias

Managers in Company X have given employees raises year after year based on what they had given the year before even though these raises were completely out of line with what other companies are paying for the same skills. This is an example of a(n)

anchoring and adjustment bias

when a manager uses only the information he remembers to make a decision, he is suffering from

availability bias

As Janine prepares to perform Ryan's performance review, she carefully reviews notes she made during the year. Janine is attempting to avoid the ________ bias.

availability

Latisha has interviewed 5 candidates for an open position she supervises. The position is open because Latisha fired the last jobholder due to excessive absenteeism. One of the candidates, William, is about to graduate from ABC University, the same college that the previous jobholder graduated from. Even though William seems to be the best candidate, Latisha feels reluctant to hire him. Latisha is feeling a __________ bias.

representativeness

Having just spent 00 for a new engine for his old car, Raimundo now learns his transmission needs to be replaced. Raimundo decides to junk the car. Raimundo has avoided continuing the __________ bias.

escalation of commitment

Former President Lyndon B. Johnson's pressing on with the Vietnam War despite mounting casualties abroad and political upheavals at home was most likely due to a(n)

escalation of commitment bias

The idea that decision makers find the notion of an actual loss more painful than giving up the possibility of a gain is called

prospect theory

which of the following statements about delegation is true?

don't delegate emergencies

which of the following should a manager delegate?

tasks that match the skills and motivation of subordinates

organizational culture can be described as

A) a system of shared beliefs and values.
B) "social glue."
C) an organization's personality.
D) something that guides the behavior of organizational members.
E) all of the above.
E

the core values of an organization are known as its

basic assumptions

The competing values framework classifies organizational cultures into which of the following?

clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy cultures

which of the following is an example of an observable artifact?

rituals and ceremonies

ArcCo Electric is a mid-sized company that prides itself on offering the best salaries and benefits, and treating everyone who works there with equal respect. The caring attitude everyone displays is truly part of its organizational culture and because of it everyone in the organization is truly involved. ArcCo is most likely an example of a __________ culture.

clan

Digital Globe is a technology company that provides the most up-to-date satellite pictures of the globe, digitalized for electronic use. As the military, governments, and others demand clear pictures of certain areas of the world, Digital Globe provides them immediately. Digital Globe has a research department that creates innovative software products by being adaptable and quick to respond to changes in the market. Digital Globe is most likely an example of a __________ culture.

adhocracy

_____ values are the explicitly stated values and norms preferred by an organization

espoused

______ values are the values and norms actually exhibited in the organization

enacted

culture is transmitted to employees in several ways, most often through such devices as

A) symbols.
B) stories.
C) heroes.
D) rites and rituals.
E) all of the above.
E

A narrative based on true events which may be embellished to emphasize a particular value is called a

story

a ____ is an object, act, quality, or event that conveys meaning to others

symbol

Southwest Airlines employees all know about when CEO Herb Kelleher visited one of the airlines' hangars in the middle of the night in a dress with a purple boa - just to liven things up. In fact, this is part of Southwest's history. This is an example of a

story

A __________ is a person whose accomplishments embody the values of the organization.

hero

which of the following statements about organizational culture is most true?

A) It promotes social-system stability.
B) It shapes behavior by helping employees make sense of their surroundings.
C) It facilitates collective commitment.
D) It can powerfully shape an organization's long-term success.
E) Organizational culture can do all of the above.
E

In which cultural perspective do employees adhere to the organization's values because they believe in its purpose?

strength perspective

What cultural perspective assumes that an organization's culture must align with its business or strategic context?

fit perspective

What cultural perspective assumes that the most effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adapt to environmental changes?

adaptive perspective

Which of the following cultural perspectives leads to the highest long-term financial performance?

adaptive perspective

which of the following is a way culture becomes embedded in an organization?

rewards, titles, promotions, and bonuses

Which of the following organizations can be classified as a mutual-benefit organization?

union

The United Way, a charitable organization, is considered a __________ organization.

nonprofit

Which of the following is an example of a mutual-benefit organization?

United Mineworkers Union

another term for the chain of command of an organization is

vertical hierarchy

which of the following statements is good advice for choosing a mentor?

look for someone different from you

The arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people is called an organization's

division of labor

An organization's _________ is a control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time.

chain of command

A supervisor has 40 employees under her; this would be considered a __________ span of control.

wide

today, what is considered to be the ideal span of control

there is no consensus as to what is ideal

the right to make decisions and give orders is called

authority

____ means that managers must report and justify work results to managers above them

accountability

the obligation you have to perform the tasks assigned to you is called

responsibility

____________ refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to make decisions, give orders, and utilize resources.

authority

The process of assigning meaningful authority and responsibility to managers and employees lower in the hierarchy is called

delegation

______ is the concept that best describes types of managerial positions

line versus staff

In ABC Insurance, the hiring decisions are all made by top management. ABC is an example of a(n) ___________ organization.

centralized

which of the following is a characteristic of a simple structure?

centralized authority

in a functional structure, people with _____ are grouped together

similare occupational specialities

Charity Hospital has a Chief of Medical Services, a Director of Administrative Services, and a Director of Outpatient Services. Charity has a ___________ structure.

functional

In which of the following structures are people with similar occupational specialties put together in formal groups?

functional structures

Your insurance company has one large complex in your home city, which sells and oversees life insurance to all of its clients. In a neighboring state, the same insurance company has a complex that sells and services auto and home insurance. This represents a ____________ structure.

product divisional

____ group activities around similar products or services

product divisions

_____ group activities around defined regional locations

geographic divisions

_____ group divisions or business units around common customers or clients

customer divisions

The Lemon Automobile Company has combined the functional and product divisional chains of command in a grid so that there are two command structures—vertical and horizontal. This organization has a ___________ structure.

matrix

An organization that contains two command structures, and in which some people actually have two bosses, is a __________ structure.

matrix

An organization where teams or workgroups, either temporary or permanent, are used to improve horizontal relations and solve problems throughout the organization uses a __________ structure.

team-based

A __________ structure has a central core that is linked to outside independent firms by computer connections, which are used to operate as if all were a single organization.

network

the process of fitting an organization to its environment is called

contingency design

A manager decides to use a contingency approach in determining the best kind of structure for her organization. Which of the following is a factor that she would consider?

A) size
B) environmental conditions
C) technology
D) life cycle
E) All of the above are factors that she would consider.
E

in a mechanistic organization

tasks and rules are clearly specified

McDonald's has a procedure for making hamburgers that specifies the order in which ketchup and mustard are put onto the burger. McDonald's is a(n) ____________ organization

mechanistic

in an organic organization,

the span of control is wider

A firm that tends to rely on routines and policies even as new events occur is most likely to be a(n) __________ organization.

mechanistic

The top management team of ABC Company is meeting to discuss possible changes in the structure of the company. Over the past 10 years, its environment has become increasingly unstable; changes are very difficult to predict. ABC should move toward having a(n) _________ structure.

organic

ABC Company has decided to move toward having a more organic structure. ABC should

simplify and eliminate rules and procedures

XYZ designs and manufactures components for computer drives (USB, hard, DVD). XYZ would best be served by an organizational structure that is

organic

the tendency of the parts of an organization to fragment is called

differentiation

the tendency of the parts of an organization to draw together to achieve a common purpose is called

integration

According to Lawrence and Lorsch, the ______________determine(s) the degree of differentiation or integration that is appropriate.

stability of an organizations environment

differentiation arises because of _____ and _____

technical specialization; division of labor

ABC Company has product divisions for hardware, electrical supplies, and plumbing supplies. Each has its own production facility and sales staff. ABC is

high differentiated

At XYZ Inc., specialists from marketing, manufacturing, finance, and engineering departments work closely together on new product development teams. XYZ is

highly integrated

which of the following is a means for achieving integration?

A) formal chain of command
B) standardized rules and procedures
C) use of cross-functional teams
D) use of computer networks
E) All of the above are means for achieving integration.
E

The top executives at the Lemon Automobile Company have recognized that they are much slower than their competition at getting new designs to market. The problem seems to stem from problems in coordinating among the various functional departments that are involved in the new car design process. The company should

create cross-functional teams for development

the ____ an organization, the more ____ it is

larger; mechanistic

organizational size is usually measured by

number of employees

woodward's model stresses the important influence of ____ on ______

technology; organizational design

in the context of woodward's model, technology is

tools and ideas for creating outputs

in a _______ technology, goods are custom-made to customers; specifications

small-batch

which type of organization is most likely to be organic?

small-batch

Small-batch organizations tend to be __________ formal and to be __________ flexible.

less; less

which of the following is a stage in the life of an organization?

maturity stage

In general, organizations are more organic when in the _______ and _______ stages, and they are more mechanistic in the _______ and _______ stages.

birth, youth; midlife, youth

general motors is currently in what stage of their organizational life cycle?

maturity stage

Apple is currently in what stage of its life cycle?

midlife

which of the following is a positive way to sand out in a new job?

A) get to know some people and listen to what they have to say
B) be aware of the power of first impressions
C) make it easy for others to give you feedback
D) overdeliver
E) All of the above are positive ways to stand out in a new job.
E

The activities managers perform to plan for, attract, develop and retain an effective workforce are called

human resource management

which of the following is a part of the strategic human resource management process?

perform appraisals of people

what is the fifth step in the strategic human resource management process?

recruit and select people

the economic or productive potential of employee knowledge and actions is called

human capital

The economic or productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships is called

social capital

the purpose of the strategic human resource process is to

get optimal work performance to help realize company's mission and vision

The process of determining the basic elements of a job by observation and analysis is called job

analysis

A __________ describes the minimum qualifications a person must have to perform the job successfully.

job specification

Joe, a human resources specialist for Jersey Office Supplies Co., rides along with the furniture delivery people to observe the problems they were encountering and what activities they were required to perform. Joe was performing a

job analysis

In considering the staffing an organization might need in the future, human resource managers should

project the organization's vision and strategy and staff based on that possibility

A report listing your organization's employees by name, education, training, languages, and other important information is called a(n)

human resource inventory

Legislation passed in 1935, the __________ Act, resulted in the National Labor Relations Board.

wagner

which piece of legislation established the U.S. retirement system?

social security act

The __________ Act allows the President of the United States to prevent or end a strike that threatens national security.

taft-hartley

Which of the following protects employees who raise accusations of fraud to a federal agency?

sarbanes-oxley act

the law that requires an extension of health insurance benefits after termination is the

consolidated omnibus budget reconcilliation act (COBRA)

which of the following laws/regulations is related to labor relations?

Privacy Act

which of the following laws/ regulations is related to equal employment opportunity?

Civil Rights Act, Title VII

Which of the following permits suits against employers for punitive damages in cases of intentional discrimination?

civil rights act

__________ occur(s) when people are hired or promoted—or denied hiring or promotion—for reasons not relevant to the job.

discrimination

which of the following statements about sexual harassment is true?

Quid pro quo suggests that the person to whom the unwanted sexual attention is directed is put in the position of jeopardizing being hired for a job unless he or she implicitly or explicitly acquiesces.

The process of locating and attracting qualified applicants for jobs open in the organization is called

recruiting

Placing information about job vacancies and qualifications in places in the organization where employees can see them such as bulletin boards is called

job posting

which of the following external recruiting methods work best?

employee referrals

Mel scheduled a special interview with Kasha before Kasha was hired, in which Mel painted a picture of both the positive and negative features of the job. Mel was performing a

realistic job preview

which of the following statements about background information is true?

A) The most prevalent distortion in a resume is lying about education.
B) People sometimes attempt to cover gaps in employment history.
C) People lie about their ages in their application information.
D) Many employers don't give honest assessments of former employees.
E) All of the above statements are true.
E

The type of interview that is most likely to cause managers problems because of its potential for bias and questionable legality is the

unstructured interview

which of the following is something a manager should do during the interview process?

After the interview write a short report making a quantitative score of the candidate's qualifications.

Monica asks Tasha, in a job interview, "Tell me about a time when you were able to deal with conflict in your work." Monica is conducting a(n)

behavioral description interview

which of the following is considered, legally, to e an employment test?

A) personality tests
B) interviews
C) application forms
D) checking experience requirements
E) All of the above are legally considered employment tests.
E

the myers-briggs type indicator is considered a ___ test

personality

a test that measures what it claims to measure and is free of bias is said to be

valid

__________ refers to educating __________ employees in how to better do their current jobs.

training; technical and operational

__________ refers to educating __________ employees in skills needed to do their jobs in the future.

development; managerial and professional

which of the following methods is effective in helping people learn facts such as work rules?

lectures

Arifeen is designing a training class that is aimed at improving teamwork among people on task forces. What method should he choose?

role plays

which of the following is an on-the-job training method?

planned work activities

which of the following is a form of off-the-job training?

classroom instruction

MBO is consistent with a ____ performance appraisal

results

performance appraisal consists of

assessing performance and providing feedback

Lupe is conducting a performance appraisal on Martin. The form her company uses asks her to list the objectives that she and Martin agreed to last year, and indicate how well Martin met each objective. Lupe's company is using a(n) ________ system of performance appraisal.

objective

The type of performance appraisal that focuses on attitudes, initiatives, and leadership is a(n) __________ appraisal.

trait

The type of performance appraisal that judges attributes like being on time for work is a(n) ____________. appraisal

BARS

Matilde is conducting a performance appraisal on Wayne, one of her subordinates. The company's performance appraisal form asks her to rate Wayne's performance on "ability as a leader" on a scale from 1 to 5. Matilde's company has a(n) _________ appraisal system.

trait

Jose is performing an appraisal of Rene, one of his subordinates. The company's performance appraisal form asks him to rate Rene's performance on teamwork on a scale ranging from, "Always meets his commitments to fellow team members and is always ready to help them when needed," to "Consistently late in meeting commitments to team members and rarely does more than required." Jose's company has a(n) _________ system of performance appraisal.

BARS

the type of appraisal system that is least likely to be valid is the _____ system

trait

most performance appraisals are done by

managers

A feedback technique in which a manager is appraised by his boss, peers, subordinates, and possibly clients is called a

360-degree appraisal

in giving feedback to a subordinate, a manger should

keep "diaries" about specific incidents of subordinates' performance

which of the following is the best statement of feedback?

"your last report contained seven errors"

a manager's primary purpose in performance appraisal should be to

help the subordinate improve his performance

which of the following is a type of compensation

A) wages
B) incentives
C) benefits
D) salaries
E) All of the above are types of compensation.
E

which of the following is an example of an employee benefit?

legal advice

On being hired, executives often negotiate generous severance packages that they receive if the company is bought. These are called

golden parachutes

which of the following is a characteristic of a successful incentive pay plan?

plan that is consistent with the organization's existing goals

in managing communicate with subordinates about the plan

regularly communicate with subordinates about the plan

which of the following is a reason why an employee may be transferred?

A) her skills are needed in another part of the organization
B) retain her interest and motivation by being presented with a new challenge
C) personal differences with her present boss
D) broaden her experience
E) All of the above are good reasons to transfer an employee.
E

when we say that an employee has been dismissed "for cause", we mean that

he is being fired for his job performance

which of the following is a reason to fire an employee for cause?

A) The employee breaks the law.
B) The employee has sloppy work habits.
C) The employee has excessive absenteeism.
D) The employee interacts poorly with customers
E) All of the above are reasons to fire an employee for cause.
E

__________ means that anyone can be dismissed at any time for any reason at all—or for no reason.

employment at will

which of the following is a good suggestion for handling a dismissal?

offer assistance to the dismissed employee in finding another job

which of the following is an effective way to deal with change and innovation?

have the courage to follow your ideas

which of the following is a supertrend shaping the future of business?

some traditional companies many not survive radically innovative change

a change in response to problems or opportunities is called a

reactive change

which of the following is an example of a proactive change?

Mary explores improvements in working conditions with her staff and begins to implement them prior to any real discontent on the part of the staff.

Wal-Mart's use of RFID (a type of technology that allows it to improve inventory turnover) is an example of: a _________ change.

proactive

Which of the following is an example of a force for change originating outside the organization?

technological advancements

Changing drinking habits have led to an increase in wine sales and a decrease in whiskey sales. This is an example of a(n) _______ change.

social & political

More companies are forging strategic alliances with other firms. This is an example of a(n) ________ change.

market

inside forces for change include which of the following?

absenteeism

Cape Cod Potato Chips, a small business in Massachusetts, finds that 60% of the qualified candidates for open jobs are women This is the first time that women have comprised over half of the qualified candidate pool. This is an example of a(n) _________ change.

demographic

Tony, the owner of Ciro di Pasta restaurant on Cape Cod is open during the "high season" from May until October. He has always hired college students on summer vacation. In recent years, the number of workers who quit mid-summer has risen significantly. When he asks, they say they are quitting because they "have enough money" or "want the time off". This is most likely an example of a(n) ________ change.

social or political

Recently many older workers who had planned to retire soon decided to keep working longer. This is an example of a _________ change.

social or political

which of the following would be an indicator for an organization that change might be needed?

A) excessive conflict between managers and employees
B) job dissatisfaction
C) high absenteeism
D) unmet needs
E) All of the above are indicators that change might be needed in the organization.
E

The Human Resource Department at ABC Company has just calculated the absenteeism rate for 2009, and it is 25% higher than it was in 2007 and 2008. ABC should

investigate whether employees have become dissatisfied with their jobs

Employees at ABC Manufacturing belong to the Widget Makers Union. The union has struck or come close to striking several times over the past 25 years. Labor negotiations have historically been very tense. ABC most likely needs to focus on changing

forces originating inside the organization

XYZ Insurance Company is about to install a new computer system that will change the way claims adjusters settle claims. Adjusters will be able to do the adjustment and issue the check right at the scene of the accident! XYZ most likely needs to focus on changing employee

skills

employees might feel they are being underpaid for what they do. This is an example of

a perception

which of the following is an area in which change is often needed?

A) technology
B) strategy
C) people
D) structure
E) All of the above are areas in which change is often needed.
E

Happy Housekeepers is considering implementing a system that will pay the cleaning workers on the basis of how quickly they can complete jobs, coupled with random inspections to insure quality. Some managers believe that this will reduce labor costs. Happy Housekeepers is focusing on changing employee

performance

The Convenient Pharmacy chain has received numerous complaints from home delivery customers in the Friendly Hills area that their prescriptions often arrive late. Almost all of the drivers say that they often get lost trying to find houses in this neighborhood, even when directions have previously been obtained from the customers. (Convenient Pharmacy does not give its drivers GPS technology.) Frequently, drivers have to take time to call the customer again for even more detailed directions. Convenient Pharmacy probably needs to change its

technology

Your Local Department (YLD) store is in the process of cross-training all of its employees to be able to assist customers, do inventory audits, and assess demand for new clothing fashions. The company is changing

skills

The Lemon Car Company recently instituted cross-functional teams to develop new products. People on the teams may be located in different parts of the country. It is expensive and time-consuming for people to travel from their different locations to headquarters to meet. The company would benefit most from a change in _________ involving

technology; teams meeting "virtually" through electronic media.

The set of techniques used for implementing planned change to make people and organizations more effective is called

organization development

A(n) __________ is a consultant with a background in behavioral sciences who can be a catalyst in helping organizations deal with old problems in new ways.

change agent

which of the following is a primary objective of OD?

A) managing conflict
B) revitalizing an organization
C) adapting to a merger
D) adapting to an acquisition
E) All of the above are primary objectives of OD.
E

In which of the following situations would the use of OD techniques be the most helpful?

assisting employees in dealing with stressful situations

The question "What is the problem?" would most likely be asked during the __________ stage of OD.

diagnosis

Fred, an OD consultant, is designing a survey of employee attitudes to be given to workers at the Lemon Automobile Company. Fred is in the _________ stage of OD

diagnosis

Maria, an OD consultant, has summarized the results of a survey of employee attitudes, and is leading a meeting with a group of employees and managers to tell them what was said and engage them in problem solving. Maria is in the ________ stage of OD.

intervention

A year after changes were made in the employee incentive plan, Scott is comparing absenteeism and turnover data from the last three years to the current year. Scott is in the _________ stage of OD.

evaluation

Rosa has been asked to observe a task force during its initial meetings and to give them feedback and suggestions about how to improve the way they function. Rosa is involved in

diagnosis

which of the following circumstances is likely to increase the success of OD?

support of top managers

which of the following is a characteristic of innovation?

A) It is uncertain.
B) It may be complex.
C) It may be controversial.
D) People closest to it know the most about it.
E) All of the above statements are characteristics of innovation.
E

A survey of 4,559 corporate managers in 36 industries found that U.S. executives thought their own companies gave innovation short shrift—only ______ percent felt their organizations could be respected for their leadership in this area.

4

Cynthia Barton Rabe, a former innovation strategist for Intel, suggests that too much knowledge and _______ can actually kill innovation.

experience

a technological innovation is generally a(n) _______ innovation

product

a managerial innovation is generally a(n) _____ innovation

process

A(n) __________ innovation is a change in the appearance or the performance of a product or a service or the creation of a new one.

product

A(n) __________ innovation is a change in the way a product or service is conceived, manufactured, or disseminated.

process

Wendy's created display screens at its drive-thru windows that show customers their orders and prices. This is an example of a(n) _________ innovation.

process

The creation of products, services, or technologies that modify those that already exist is called __________ innovation.

incremental

The creation of products, services, or technologies that replace those that already exist is called __________ innovation.

radical

according to experts, innovation has which of the following characteristics?

A) Innovating is an uncertain process.
B) Innovation is knowledge-intensive.
C) Innovation may be controversial.
D) Innovation can be complex.
E) All of the above are characteristics of innovation.
E

Esteban, President of Acme Beverage Company, has just reviewed the dismal results of the company's new product, a chocolate cola beverage. Edith was the major force behind the idea and its market trial. It appears that Edith did the normal level and type of research on the product's acceptance by consumers prior to its introduction. Esteban should

reward Edith

organizations can help to make innovation happen by

A) creating a culture that celebrates failure.
B) supporting innovation with resources.
C) rewarding successful innovations.
D) rewarding R & D people in a similar way to salespeople.
E) all of the above.
E

Championing an innovation may require you to draw on your finest ___________ skills in order to be successful.

communication

Which of the following sequences best describes how a manager can foster innovation in an organization?

recognize problems, gain allies, reward employees

the reintroduction of a familiar practice within the same organization is called an

adaptive change

employees are likely to see an adaptive change as

least threatening

At the Big Apple Department Store, employees generally know that during annual inventory, they are required to work overnight shifts. This is an example of a(n) __________ change.

adaptive

Fernando, a manager in a retail store, is changing the work schedule of his long-term employees for the holiday season. He is using the same basic schedule as he did last year. Fernando should expect that his employees will be

hardly upset, or not upset at all

A change that represents the introduction of a new practice to an organization that is not new to the industry is called a(n)

innovative change

an innovative change involves _____ complexity, cost, and uncertainty

moderate

your Friendly Insurance Company has decided that its claims adjusters must be available to meet with claimants in the evenings and on weekends, a practice that some other insurance carriers have recently adopted. This is an example of a(n) ____________ change.

innovative

introducing a practice that is new to the industry is called a _____ change

radically innovative

The Jersey Office Supplies Company has decided to hire enough drivers to deliver products to their customers within one-half hour of when they are ordered. They believe that this practice will give them a significant advantage over the competition, which has not adopted such a practice. Jersey is introducing a(n) _________ change

radically innovative

Radically innovative change involves ________ change in complexity, cost, and uncertainty.

extreme

Lewin's change model consists of

three stages: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing

during lewin's "refreezing' stage, managers should

reinforce the desired change in the employees

during lewin's "changing " stage, managers should

give people new models of behavior

The process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations is called

benchmarking

Kotters change model consists of

eight steps for leading organizational change

younger workers today are more likely than older workers to

need more autonomy

which of the following is one of the big 5 personality dimensions?

emotional stability

the stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his identity is known as his

personality

_______ describes how dependable and responsible a person is

conscientiousness

john is intelligent, imaginative and broadminded; he is probably high in______.

openness to experience

meg is very relaxed and secure. meg is probably high in

emotional stability

Susanna loves going to parties, where she talks to everyone there. Susanna is probably high in

extroversion

______ has been associated with success for managers and salespeople

extroversion

_____ has been found to have a stronger positive correlation with job performance than agreeableness

extroversion

how should a manager use personality tests?

supplement personality test data with other tests and interviews

a graphology test assesses a person's

handwriting

______ tests don't work, but _____ tests do

graphology; integrity

how much people believe they control their own fate through their own actions is called their

locus of control

People with __________ exhibit less anxiety, greater motivation, and stronger expectations that effort leads to performance.

internal locus of control

joe manages gabrielle. gabrielle has a highly internal locus of control. joe should

give gabrielle considerable freedom in the job

which kind of employee is most likely to command a higher salary?

a person with an internal locus of control

belief in one's personal ability to do a task is called

self-efficacy

high self-efficacy has been linked to

success in mental tasks

if a manager has subordinates that are low in self-efficacy , the manager should

reward small success

the extent to which people like or dislike themselves is called their

self-esteem

The extent to which people are able to observe their own behavior and adapt it to external situations is called

self monitoring

If a manager knows his subordinates have low self-esteem, she should

express confidence in employees' abilities to complete their tasks

which of the following is a trait of emotional intelligence?

relationship management

the ability to cope, empathize with others, and be self-motivated is called

emotional intelligence

The field that is dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work is called

organizational behavior

The abstract ideals that guide a person's thinking and behavior across all situations are called

values

Which value is the most important to workers according to the Society for Human Resource Management?

work-life balance

The __________ component of an attitude consists of the feelings or emotions one has about a situation.

affective

A(n) __________ is defined as a learned predisposition toward a given object

attitude

The statement, "I don't like answering the phone when I'm trying to study," reflects the __________ component of an attitude.

affective

The statement, "I am never going to eat at this restaurant again," reflects the ___________ component of an attitude.

behavioral

The statement, "My boss doesn't know how to do his job," reflects the __________ component of an attitude.

cognitive

The psychological discomfort that a person experiences between her cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior is called

cognitive dissonance

under which of the following circumstances would cognitive dissonance be greatest?

when the emotional investment in the situation is large

which of the following is a way to reduce cognitive dissonance?

belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior

Because people are uncomfortable with inconsistency, Festinger theorized, they will seek to reduce the dissonance of the inconsistency. How they deal with the discomfort, he suggested, depends on which of the following factors?

importance

how much you like your job is called

job satisfaction

The extent to which an employee feels positively or negatively about various aspects of their work refers to

job satisfaction

a person's overall satisfaction with his job depends on how he feels about his

boss as a supervisor

Job satisfaction is positively correlated with __________ and negatively correlated with __________.

organizational commitment; perceived stress

which of the following is positively related to job satisfaction?

motivation

The extent to which an employee identifies or is personally involved with his/her job is called

job involvement

absenteeism and tardiness, drug and alcohol abuse are examples of

counterproductive work behaviors

the process of interpreting and understanding one's environment is called

perception

which of the following is a step in the perceptual process?

retrieving from memory to make judgments and decisions

which of the following is a distortion in perception?

A) stereotyping
B) halo effect
C) selective perception
D) causal attribution
E) All of the above are distortions in perception.
E

The tendency to filter out information that is discomforting, irrelevant, or contradictory to one's beliefs is called

selective perception

The tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs is called

stereotyping

as employees' age increases, their _____.

job satisfaction increases

which of the following is associated with older workers?

higher work motivation

The __________ says that we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait.

halo effect

_____ is the activity of inferring causes for observed behavior

causal attribution

The tendency to attribute another person's behavior to their personal characteristics rather than to the situation they are in is called

the fundamental attribution bias

The phenomenon in which people's expectations of themselves or others leads them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true is called

self-fulfilling prophecy

_________ is the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively.

stress

when others' expectations exceed one's ability, _____ has occurred

role overload

Your boss expects you to stay late to cover the workload of a coworker who is out sick, but you are supposed to help your mother with some work on her house tonight. You are suffering from

role conflict

which of the following is a psychological sign of stress?

hostility

signs of negative stress may include

A) sweaty palms.
B) upset stomach.
C) boredom.
D) sleeplessness.
E) all of the above.
E

__________ is a state of emotional, mental, and even physical exhaustion, expressed as listlessness, indifference, or frustration.

burnout

which of the following is a suggested strategy for reducing unhealthy stressors in organizations?

A) rollout employee assistance programs
B) recommend a holistic wellness approach
C) create a supportive environment
D) make jobs interesting
E) do all of the above
E

a simple model of motivation includes which of the following?

A) unfulfilled need
B) motivation
C) behaviors
D) rewards
E) A simple model of motivation includes all of the above.
E

Bethany is writing a paper for her management class. She already has a strong 'A' in the class, and only needs to get a C on the paper to keep her A. As she prepares the final version of the paper, she takes special care that the paper is well-written, insightful, and error-free, something that she can be proud of. Bethany is experiencing

an intrinsic reward

which of the following is a need-based perspective on motivation?

alderfer's ERG theory

maslow's levels of needs, in order from basic to highest level are

physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization

the need that is met by providing autonomy and control to employees over how they do their jobs is

self-actualization

the need for the status, reputation, and recognition are part of

esteem

A manager wants to improve how her employees' belongingness or love needs are met. To do so, she could

redesign individual jobs into teams

for managers, the importance of maslow's contribution is that he showed that workers

have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck

_______ assumes that three basic needs influence behavior

alderfers ERG theory

According to McClelland's theory, a well-balanced person should have

needs for achievement, power, and affiliation that are about the same

the desire to excel is part of the need for

achievement

Mark prefers working alone, is comfortable taking moderate risks, and feels good when excelling at his goals. Mark probably has a

high need for achievement

Janet prefers work that involves talking to many people and being very social. Janet probably has a

high need for affiliation

according to herzberg, which of the following is an example of a motivating factor?

the work itself

According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a hygiene factor?

supervisors

which theory has no classification for lower-level needs?

McCelland's acquired needs theory

Which of the following is a higher-level need based on the four content theory perspectives?

self-actualization

Hygiene factors are connected with the job's ________, while motivating factors are connected to the job's _________.

context; content

According to Herzberg's theory, the first thing managers should do is to

make sure pay levels and company policies are reasonable

which of the following is a process perspective on motivation?

goal-setting theory

Theories that try to understand the thought processes by which people decide how to act are called

process perspectives

The theory that focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated by the organization is

equity theory

in equity theory, employees are motivated to

resolve feeling of injustice

when workers perceive they are being treated fairly on the job, they are most likely to

support organizational change

Jerry, a worker, goes to Hilary, his boss, and complains that even though he's the best performer in the work unit, he is being paid the least. Hilary should

expect that jerry's performance will decline

The theory that suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and how likely they think they are to get it is called

expectancy theory

__________ is the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance.

expectancy

Last year, Diana's boss promised her a big bonus if she met her goals. At the end of the year, after Diana had exceeded her goals, she found her bonus was very small. In the future, Diana's __________ will probably be __________.

instrumentality; low

What outcome will I receive if I perform at this level? This question is asked for the ________ element of expectancy theory.

instrumentality

How much do I want the outcome? This question is asked for the ________ element of the expectancy theory.

valence

when using goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers should

help workers understand and accept the goals

increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation is called

job enlargement

the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs is called

job simplification

simplified jobs lead to

job dissatisfaction

job _____ is the opposite of job _____.

simplification; enlargement

research suggests that job enlargement affects job performance in which way?

Job enlargement does not have a significant, lasting effect on job performance

The process of building into a job such motivating factors as recognition and achievement is called

job enrichment

of the following which is a core job characteristic?

task identity

According to the job characteristics model, skill variety, task identity, and task significance combine to affect

meaningfulness of work

which of the following is a contingency factor in the job characteristics model?

desire for personal growth

The extent to which a job requires the worker to perform all the tasks needed to complete a job from beginning to end is called

task identity

Giorgio, a manager, redesigns the work of his subordinates, such that each person completes one part of the total work process, repeating this part throughout the day. Previously, each person completed several steps of the process. Giorgio has

decreased task identity

The "motivating potential score" is calculated as part of using ___________.

the job characteristics model

the amount of internal work motivation associated with a specific job is called

motivating potential score

The theory that attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated while behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated, is called

reinforcement theory

As a result of a successful project you led, your manager offers you a promotion; she is using

positive reinforcement

the use of desirable consequences to encourage desirable behavior is called

positive reinforcement

when a manager stops nagging a subordinate, the manager is using

negative reinforcement

When a manager says to a worker, "I'm docking your pay," the manager is using

punishment

The withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for a particular behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future, is called

extinction

The application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior is called

punishment

When a manager stops giving a worker a positive reward as she had previously been doing, the manager is engaged in

extinction

in using reinforcement, a manager should

clearly communicate the desired and undesired behavior

__________ is the heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her organization, which influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort in his or her work.

employee engagement

A piece rate system is an example of a ________ compensation plan.

pay for performance

A department store pays its salespeople a percentage of the earnings from the goods the salespeople sell. This is an example of a ___________ compensation plan.

bonus

a scanlon plan is a type of ____ compensation plan

gainsharing

In Vernon's department at XYZ Company, employees get money based on how much the department has been able to save in costs. This is an example of a ____________ compensation plan.

gainsharing

By giving stock options to all employees who work 20 hours or more hours a week, Starbucks Corp., has been able to hold its annual turnover rate to ______ percent—in an industry in which 300% is not unheard of.

60

which of the following is a practice in creating a flexible workplace?

A) job sharing
B) telecommuting
C) part-time work
D) compressed workweeks
E) All of the above can be used to create a flexible workplace.
E

which of the following is the best way to manage virtual teams?

meet in person regularly

in managing virtual workers, a manager should

meet regularly face to face

which of the following promises to be a cornerstone of future management?

teamwork

Men's Wearhouse fired a salesman who wasn't sharing walk-in customer traffic, and total clothing sales volume among all salespeople (who work on commission) increased significantly. Which of the following workplace improvements does this example best suggest?

reduce destructive internal competition

teamwork

improves speed and decreases cost

Two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms, share collective goals, and have a common identity are called a

group

A _______ is defined as a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves accountable.

team

At one GE factory, teamwork resulted in a workforce that manufactured 20% more product using the same amount of raw materials than comparable GE workforces elsewhere. This is an example of

increased productivity

Cisco Systems told executives they would gain or lose 30% of their bonuses based on how well they worked with peers and in 3 years had record profits. The cause of the profit increase is most likely an example of

improved workplace cohesiveness

a group that is created to do something productive for the organization and is headed by a leader is called a(n)

formal group

which of the following is true of informal groups?

informal groups support the plans of formal groups

A team composed of people from different departments who are pursuing a common objective is called a

cross-functional team

Knowledgeable workers who meet as a temporary team to solve a specific problem and then disband are called a

problem-solving team

A team that consists of members who interact by computer network to collaborate on projects is called a(n)

virtual team

A work team that is responsible for performing day-to-day operations is called a(n)

production team

A stakeholder group who provides reactions to new curriculum proposals by a university faculty is an example of a(n)

advice team

Which of the following is a characteristic of a quality circle?

advice team

which of the following is a characteristic of a self-managed team?

team bonuses are used

who are typical members of quality circles?

workers and supervisors

Self-managed teams are groups of workers who have been given __________ for their task domains.

administrative oversight

administrative oversight given to self-managed teams can include

A) planning.
B) scheduling work.
C) monitoring performance.
D) staffing.
E) all of the above.
E

when using a self-managed team, a manager should

allow members to hire their own co-workers

during the forming stage, the leader should

allow people to become acquainted

the question that individuals ask during the storming stage of group development is

what's my role here?

The question the group is asking during the forming stage of group development is

why are we here?

During the __________ stage, close relationships develop and unity and harmony emerge.

norming

during the norming stage of group development, the leader should

help the team identify group goals and values

__________ is (are) a "we feeling" that binds group members together.

group cohesiveness

in the performing stage, members

concentrate on solving problems

During the performing stage, the group answers the question

can we do the job properly?

during the adjourning stage, the leader should

celebrate rituals

groups that make it through storming generally do so because

someone challenges the group to resolve its political battles

The stage during which a group sets guidelines about issues like attendance and punctuality is the __________ stage.

norming

Which of the following is a force of change outside of an organization?

demographic characteristics

Which of the following is a consideration in building a group into an effective team?

A) norms
B) groupthink
C) performance goals and feedback
D) size
E) All of the above are considerations in building a group into an effective team.
E

which of the following is an advantage of smaller groups?

higher morale

which of the following is a disadvantage of smaller groups?

less knowledge

which of the following is an advantage of larger groups?

can take advantage of division of labor

which of the following is a disadvantage of larger groups?

lower morale

__________ is the tendency of people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone.

social loafing

A socially determined expectation of how an individual should behave in a specific position is called a

role

A __________ role consists of behavior that concentrates on getting the team's work done.

task

Leila works during her meeting to pull together the ideas of her committee members into a coherent whole. Leila is performing a ___________ role.

task

Jacques says during his meeting with the task force, "Let's hear from those who don't agree with this choice." Jacques is performing a _________ role.

maintenance

In her meeting with her workgroup, Yolanda thanks each person who contributes an idea and finds something good to say about it. Yolanda is acting in the ________ role.

encourager

which of the following is a reason to enforce norms?

A) to clarify role expectations
B) to help the group survive
C) to emphasize the group's important values
D) to help individuals avoid embarrassing situations
E) to do all of the above
E

Which of the following is a way managers can enhance team cohesiveness?

allowing off-the-job social events

the blind unwillingness of a cohesive group to consider alternatives is called

groupthink

To prevent groupthink, a manager should

bring outsiders into the group regularly

The relationship between the level of conflict and workgroup performance is

more conflict raises performance up to a point; then increased conflict lowers performance.

which of the following is a source of conflict?

inconsistent power and influence

Sheila works closely with Wayne on many projects, and they are often in conflict. Sheila starts new projects by creating careful plans and beginning immediately. Wayne believes in being open-minded to new ideas, and works frantically at the last minute. Their team conflict most likely stems from

personality clashes.

The conflict-handling style in which one person allows another to have his or her own way is called

accommodating

____ strives to devise solutions that benefit both parties

collaborating

Michelle, a manager, tells Alejandro, her subordinate, that the work must be done according to procedure. Michelle is using the ________ conflict-handling style.

forcing

Rosalita sees that Khalil, her co-worker, is late again. She is angry because this causes her to handle his phone calls. When Khalil finally arrives, Rosalita decides to wait until she cools off. Rosalita is using the _______ conflict-handling style.

avoiding

______ is appropriate for complex issues plagued by misunderstanding

collaborating

Pat and Dale are both managers at ABC Company. Pat wants to decorate the office in light blue, and Dale wants to decorate in tan. This issue is important to Pat, but not to Dale. Dale should adopt a(n) ________ conflict-handling style.

accommodating

Which of the following conditions would suggest that constructive conflict should be stimulated?

there is high employee turnover

__________ is designed to elicit different opinions without inciting people's personal feelings.

programmed conflict

Role-playing criticism to test whether a proposal is workable is called

devil's advocacy

According to Tom Peters and Nancy Austin, at what level(s) is leadership present in effective organizations?

all levels of management

___________ is about coping with complexity and _________ is about coping with change.

management; leadership

according to kotter, management and leadership are considered ____

complementary to each other

According to Kotter, companies manage complexity in which of the following ways?

organizing and staffing

of the following, which is the best way for leaders to cope with change?

setting a direction

According to Frederick Smith, chairman and CEO of FedEx, "The primary task of leadership is to "__________."

communicate the vision and values of an organization

The power that managers have that results from their formal positions within organizations is called ________ power.

legitimate

_____ power results from one's specialized information

expert

Alejandro compliments his subordinate Joe on the great job he did on the weekly report, and also informs his own boss about Joe's great work. Alejandro is using __________ power.

reward

Power deriving from one's personal attraction is called __________ power.

referent

Josephine, a manager, is well liked by everyone, and her subordinates trust her to do the right thing for them. Based on this description, Josephine has __________ power.

referent

the influence tactic that employees cite as most used in a recent study on the topic is

rational persuasion

The three least used influence tactics, according to a recent survey of employees, are

coalition, pressure, and legitimating

the influence tactic least likely to result in the enthusiastic commitment of employees is

forming a coalition

The influence tactic that tries to convince someone by using reason, logic, or facts is

rational persuasion

The influence tactic that gets others to participate in a decision or change is

consultation

The influence tactic that bases a request on one's authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors is a __________ tactic.

legitimating

Which of the following theories is an example of the trait approach to leadership?

leadership lessons from the GLOBE project

Which of the following is one of the traits of a credible leader identified by Kouzes and Posner?

competent

Which of the following is an example of the full-range approach to leadership?

transactional leadership

organizations may apply trait theory by

using management development programs

According to a Business Week summary of management studies, men score higher than women do on

exhibiting turf-consciousness

The leadership approach that attempts to determine the distinctive styles used by effective leaders is the _________ approach.

behavioral

which of the following is a behavioral leadership approach?

Ohio state leadership model

The model that identifies leadership styles as "job-centered" or "employee-centered" is the ___________ model.

university of michigan leadership

Harold, a manager, pays close attention to employee productivity and how efficiently the assembly line is moving. Harold can best be described as a(n) __________ leader.

job-centered

in the ohio state studies, leadership style is identified as

initiating structure or consideration

From the University of Michigan and Ohio State studies, one management expert concluded that effective leaders tend to do all but one of the following. Which one?

give clear orders and expect them to be carried out

On Mondays, Gloria always makes sure to check with all her subordinates on how their weekends went. Gloria is ________.

expressing consideration

The approach to leadership that suggests that effective leadership behavior depends on the situation at hand is the ___________ approach.

contingency

which of the following is a contingency approach to leadership?

fiedlers model

Fiedler's contingency leadership model determines if a leader's style is

task-oriented or relationship-oriented

the amount of influence a leader has in his immediate work environment is called his

situational control

The extent to which tasks are routine, unambiguous, and easily understood is called

task structure

According to Fiedler's model, to find out what her management style is, a manager would have

her employees fill out a questionaire

The questionnaire used in Fiedler's model is called the

least preferred coworker scale

Ronaldo is part of a task force consisting of his peers from other departments in the organization. Ronaldo has

low position power

According to Fiedler's model, a relationship-oriented leadership style works best in __________ situations.

moderate control

Zach is leader of a task force that has been charged with restructuring the order-processing system in the organization. The task force is composed of his peers from other departments in the organization. Most of them worked together before in a previous taskforce that was disbanded because of high levels of conflict in the group. Zach's situational control

is low

George is leader of a task force that has been charged with restructuring the order-processing system in the organization. The task force is composed of his peers from other departments in the organization. Most of them worked together before in a previous taskforce that was disbanded because of high levels of conflict in the group. According to Fiedler's model, an effective leader in this situation would have a ___________ style.

task-oriented

In assessing how much situational control he has, a manager should consider which of the following?

position power

Kirsten supervises the pool of word processors who serve the entire group of lawyers at her law firm. Kirsten gets along well with her people, and has worked hard to create detailed procedures and instructions for every type of legal document that the typists might encounter. Kirsten hires and fires, gives out work assignments, does performance appraisals and decides on promotions. Kirsten has

high situational control

Jeffrey supervises the pool of word processors who serve the entire group of lawyers at his law firm. Jeffrey gets along well with his people, and has worked hard to create detailed procedures and instructions for every type of legal document that the typists might encounter. Jeffrey hires and fires, gives out work assignments, does performance appraisals and decides on promotions. According to Fiedler, the appropriate leadership style in this situation would be

task-oriented

According to Fiedler's model, _________ situation control favors a leader who is _________ oriented

moderate; relationship

The model that suggests that an effective leader clarifies how subordinates can achieve personal and organizational objectives is

house's path-goal model

According to House's revised path-goal theory, a leader's style should vary depending on which of the following?

personal characteristics of subordinates

Ahmad supervises employees who work on problems that the organization has never faced before, and for which there are no defined procedures. Ahmad follows the House model of leadership. Ahmad should use a _________ style.

path-goal clarifying

Indira supervises the customer service unit for XYZ Inc. This work unit receives stress-producing calls from unhappy customers, and is frustrated by the failure of many of their peers in other departments to help resolve problems. Turnover is high in the unit, though those in the unit are about equal. Indira should adopt a ________ style to make the workplace as pleasant as possible under these circumstances.

supportive

A chief scientist directing a team of researchers investigating the causes of different diseases should probably use the __________ style.

group-oriented

__________ is defined as the extent to which a follower possesses the ability and willingness to complete a task.

readiness

In Hersey-Blanchard's situational leadership model, when a manager is explaining decisions and persuading others to follow a course of action, he is using the __________ style.

selling

As follower readiness increases, leaders should move from _______ to _______ to ________ to _______ style

telling, selling; participating, delegating

A subordinate who is unable to do the job, but who is willing or confident, is classified in the Hersey-Blanchard model as

R2

Jason, a manager, has one subordinate, Teresa, who is both unable and unwilling to complete a new task. He has another subordinate, Jean, who is unable but willing to complete a new task. Jason should use a __________ style with Teresa, and a __________ style with Jean.

telling; selling

a "transactional" leader is about the same thing as a

manager

Which of the following is a characteristic of transformational leaders?

they are inspirational

transformational leadership is positively associated with

measures of employee job satisfaction

The __________ model of leadership emphasizes that leaders have different sorts of relationships with different subordinates.

LMX

__________ is a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process in which people share responsibility for leading.

shared leadership

A leader who focuses on providing increased service to others is called a

servant leader

a successful church minister could best be described as which type of leader?

servant

Google founders Brin, Page, and Schmidt could best be described as which type of leaders?

shared

which type of leader manages for global networks?

e-leader

which of the following is a secret of a successful e-leader?

create a "teachable vision"

effective communication begins with

listening

communication is

the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another

when your intended message is sent accurately in the least amount of time, you are a(n)

efficient communicator

The process of interpreting and trying to make sense of what someone has said is called

decoding

Denise and Florence are talking on their cell phones. After Denise reads her a phone number, Florence repeats the number back to Denise. This is an example of

feedback

Which of the following is an example of noise in the communication process?

A) groundskeepers mowing the lawn outside the classroom window
B) during a professor's lecture, student in the back of the classroom is working on a homework assignment for a different class
C) uncomfortable classroom desks
D) an attractive person walking by the open classroom door
E) All of the above are potentially noise .
E

Which of the following is a step in the communication process?

message is transmitted through a medium

Which of the following is an appropriate media for a manager to praise an employee?

A) e-mail
B) telephone
C) posting an announcement near the office coffee machine
D) voicing a compliment
E) All of the above would be appropriate media for a manager to praise an employee.
E

How well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning is called its

richness

Of the following, which medium is the richest?

videoconferencing

Of the following, which medium is the least rich?

newsletters

A manager needs to communicate about a routine situation with someone she knows whose physical location is not far from her office. Generally, which of the following should the manager use?

e-mail

Top executives at XYZ Company want to let lower level managers know that XYZ is going to be acquired by ABC, Inc. How should they communicate this? (Assume that all of the choices are possible.)

call a meeting of managers

which of the following is a barrier to communication?

physical barriers

Mina is a cashier in a gambling casino. Her job involves working at one of several windows where patrons bring coins they have won, and the cashiers dump the coins into noisy coin-counting machines. Sometimes, it is very difficult for her to hear what the patrons are saying to her. This is an example of a(n) __________ barrier to communication.

physical

Marty, located in California, needs to communicate with Cathy, who works in New Jersey, about a project they are working on. They are facing a(n) ___________ barrier.

physical

Salvador speaks English as a second language, and sometimes has difficulty coming up with the exact word to express an idea. Salvador is facing a(n) __________ barrier.

encoding

Jason tells Giorgio his cell phone number, and Giorgio nods. Jason then asks Giorgio to repeat back to him the phone number he just gave him. Jason is trying to avoid a(n) __________ barrier.

feedback

Greg was thinking about how he just did on his economics test when his management professor talked about tomorrow's management quiz. This is an example of a(n) __________ barrier.

receiver

Professor Woops requires papers from his management class to be submitted by email. Over the weekend, his computer crashes and his emails are lost. This has created a(n) __________ barrier.

medium

the study of the meaning of words is called

semantics

terminology that is specific to a particular profession or group is called

jargon

which of the following is a personal barrier to communication?

A) poor speaking skills
B) lack of trustworthiness
C) differing frames of reference
D) judging others' messages
E) All of the above are personal barriers to communication.
E

Do you actually listen when they're talking? This is most likely a test of which personal barrier that contributes to communication?

faulty listening skills

According to psychologist __________, we have a natural tendency to judge others' statements from our own point of view.

carl rogers

the statement, "young men are reckless," reflects a

stereotype

which of the following is a way in which nonverbal communication is expressed?

A) interpersonal space
B) eye contact
C) facial expressions
D) touch
E) All of the above are ways in which nonverbal communication is expressed.
E

Which of these actions should a speaker take as a sign that her message is being understood by her listeners in the United States?

eye contact

which of the following is a "dont" toward better nonverbal communication skills?

look away from the speaker

which of the following is a "do" toward better nonverbal communication skills?

speak at a moderate rate

compared to women, men tend to

be indirect when they don't know something

compared to women, men tend to

be more blunt

A female professor uses sports analogies in illustrating her lectures to a group of male students. She is said to be

genderflexing

Communications that follow the chain of command and are considered as official are known as

formal

the device that indicates how official communications should be routed is called the

organization chart

a subordinate communicating with his boss is communicating

vertically

the more management levels through which a message passes

the more distorted the message may become

XYZ Corporation communicates its revised mission statement to all employees. This is an example of

downward communication

Jeremy shares information with his fellow task-force members about their project. Jeremy is communicating

horizontally

An announcement of the company-sponsored picnic travels from the employees' social committee to the other employees through email. This communication is __________ and __________.

horizontal; informal

The type of communication channel that develops outside the organizational structure and does not follow the chain of command is called a(n) __________ communication channel.

informal

Gossip and rumor are part of the __________, the organization's __________ communication channel.

grapevine; informal

the grapevine is

faster than formal channels

according to the textbook, MBWA stands for

management by wondering around

A manager who literally wanders around her organization and talks with people across all lines of authority is doing

MBWA

an organization's private internet is called its

intranet

An organization expands its private Internet to connect with customers, suppliers, and other partners. This expansion is called its

extranet

the effects of e-mail include

increased teamwork

the drawbacks of using e-mail include which of the following?

information overload

Using video and audio links to enable people at different locations to see, hear, and talk with each other is called

teleconferencing

which of the following is true of telecommuting?

increased ability to hire nontraditional workers, such as prisoners

High-definition videoconference systems that simulate face-to-face meetings between users are called __________ technology.

telepresence

which of the following statements about blogs is true?

blogs are used to obtain feedback by organizational leaders

When the amount of information received exceeds a person's ability to handle or process it, ________ has been said to occur.

information overload

Which of the following is a piece of advice to help reduce the amount of information coming your way?

find a way to filter out unwanted messages

generally, people comprehend about _____ of a typical verbal message

35%

the average speaker communicates ____ words per minute

125

What do good listeners do during the information gap between what someone says and how fast we process?

mentally summarize what's been said

speed reading works well for material that is

easy

The strategy that establishes a common ground with the reader and in which the order of arguments makes the overall position stronger is

negative to positive

when you want your reader to take a logical action, you should lay out your ideas in writing by

most important to least important

Jim wants to convince Rita to change her mind about a proposal she has been supporting. The strategy that Jim should adopt for laying out his ideas is

least controversial to most controversial

A study conducted by AT&T and Stanford University found that the top predictor of success and professional upward mobility was

public speaking ability

the introduction to a business speech should

get right to the point

the conclusion of a speech should

contain a call to action, a thought for the day, a little story, or a quotation

Mary Ann has just taken over as head of production for MAJ Company. She would like to improve the productivity of her unit. Which of the following should she immediately embark upon to achieve the best results?

establish a system of measurement

which of the following is a challenge a manager will deal with in the 21st century?

competitive advantage

which of the following is a primary function of management?

controlling

productivity equals

goods and services, divided by labor and capital and energy and materials

managers can increase overall productivity by

increasing the efficiency of labor

which of the following statements about productivity is most true?

productivity is a matter of survival

_____________ is defined as monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and taking corrective action as needed.

controlling

_____________ is concerned with arranging tasks, people and other resources to accomplish the work.

organizing

carlos, a manager, keeps track of customer reeturns. He is engaged in

controlling

Which of the following is a result of a small problem mushrooming into a big one?

cost overruns

control helps an organization

A) adapt to change & uncertainty.
B) detect opportunities.
C) deal with complexity.
D) decentralize decision making.
E) do all of the above.
E

which of the following is a step in the control process?

take corrective action, if necessary

the second step in the control process is

measure performance

which of the following is the best stated standard?

turnover less than 5% per quarter

standards may be

A) narrow.
B) broad.
C) quantifiable.
D) part of a balanced scorecard.
E) all of the above.
E

which of the following is the most difficult-to-measure stated standard?

positive corporate culture

the amount of acceptable deviation from a standard is called the

range of variation

Managers often use ___________, which provides four indicators for progress to measure performance.

the balanced scorecard

A UPS driver fails to perform according to the standards set for the route and traffic conditions. A supervisor rides along and gives suggestions for improvement. This is the ____________ stage of the control process.

take corrective action

which of he following is an indicator of the balanced scorecard?

financial measures

"What must we excel at" is the question to be answered by which of the following balanced scorecard perspectives?

internal business perspective

"Can we continue to improve and create value" is the question to be answered by which of the following balanced scorecard perspectives?

innovation & learning perspective

A(n) __________ is a visual representation of the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard that enables managers to communicate their goals.

strategy map

which of the following is a barrier to effective measurement?

companies measure activities rather than results

Which of the following is a mechanism that contributes to a measurement-managed company's success?

clear communication

operational control is performed by

first level managers

typically, strategic control is accomplished through reports issued_____.

quarterly or less frequently

An organization might ask for more frequent strategic control reports if the organization is

operating in an uncertain environment

a quality control system is an example of a _____ resource control

physical

which of the following is one of the areas of control for organizations?

informational resources

A drug test employed by an organization in its hiring process is an example of a(n) _______ resource control.

human

which of the following is an example of an informational resource control?

production schedule

A __________ control style uses rules, regulations, and authority to elicit employee compliance.

bureaucratic

XYZ Corporation competes in a stable environment with minimal competition and "cash cow" products. XYZ should use a __________ control style.

bureaucratic

which of the following is most likely the most bureaucratic organization?

U.S. Army

A budget that allocates increased or decreased funds to a department by using the last budget period as a reference point is called a(n)

incremental budget

one effect of incremental budgeting is that it

locks managers into stable spending arrangements

one effect of zero-based budgeting is that it

takes more time for managers than incremental budgeting

A budget that allocates resources on the basis of a single estimate of costs is called a(n) ________ budget.

fixed

A(n) _________ budget allows resources to vary in proportion with various levels of activity.

variable

Sales have exceeded expectations at ABC Company this year, and Pete, the head of manufacturing, has hired temporary workers to supplement the existing work force. Pete is clearly operating with the use of a(n) ___________ budget.

flexible

a budget that projects future sales is called an

revenue budget

A(n) __________ summarizes the organization's financial results over a specified period of time.

income statement

A(n) ___________ indicates how easily an organization's assets can be converted into cash.

liquidity ratio

another term for the return ratio is the

ROI

which of the following is a principle of deming management?

A) Quality should be aimed at the needs of the consumer.
B) Companies should aim at improving the system.
C) Improved quality leads to increased market share.
D) Quality can be improved on the basis of hard data.
E) All of the above are Deming management principles.
E

TQM holds to two core principles

people orientation and improvement orientation

The process of ongoing small, incremental improvements in all parts of an organization is called

continuous improvements

a team that meets temporarily to solve a particular problem is called a

special-purpose team

Eleven workers from different subunits at the Springfield plant of ABC Company meet monthly with their supervisors to discuss workplace problems, particularly those connected with production and waste in the department. This is an example of a

quality circle

reduction in the steps of a work process is also called

reduction cycle time

In Harvey's job, he takes random samples of production runs to ascertain quality. His job involves

statistical process control

good control systems deliver good information to managers

often enough to allow corrective action

which kind of organization is most likely to try to exert too much control?

bureaucratic

At Friendly Insurance, claims adjusters are required to take their coffee breaks at specific times. If an adjuster is on the phone with a claimant at the time the break is scheduled, the employee risks losing part of his break time. This is an example of

too much control

At Friendly Insurance, managers spend significant amounts of time on completing end-of-year reports. As a result, at that time of year, sometimes dealing with important customer issues is postponed. This is an example of

overemphasis on paperwork

At XYZ Company, employees set daily production goals and check the quality of their own products. XYZ has overcome which of the following barriers to success of control systems?

too little employee participation

Two years ago, Jersey Office Supply Company changed the maintenance schedule on its delivery trucks by increasing the number of miles between oil changes and other preventive maintenance activities. This allowed them to forego purchasing another truck to cover when vehicles were out of service for preventive maintenance. Last year, however, Jersey trucks broke down about 50% more than the prior year. This is an example of

overemphasis on means instead of ends

Gambling casinos require their dealers to have licenses, observe them using closed circuit TV, and require detailed reports at the end of each shift. These organizations have overcome the control system barrier of

overemphasis on one instead of multiple approaches



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